More ex-Barclays staff charged over Libor

Britain’s Serious Fraud Office says three more ex-employees of Barclays bank have been charged over the Libor rate-rigging affair.

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The scandal over Libor, an interest rate at the heart of the global economy, has damaged the reputation of London as a global financial centre and plagued big names in world banking.

The Serious Fraud Office (SFO) said on Monday it had launched criminal proceedings against the three men “for conspiracy to defraud in connection with its investigation into the manipulation of Libor”.

The charged were named as Jay Vijay Merchant, Alex Julian Pabon and Ryan Michael Reich in a brief statement issued by the SFO, which added that its investigation would continue.

The trio will appear at London’s Westminster Magistrates’ Court in a few weeks’ time.

Barclays declined to comment.

The SFO has now brought a total of 12 charges in relation to Libor, including three other former Barclays employees.

Libor, or the London Interbank Offered Rate, is a global benchmark calculated daily, using estimates from banks of their own interbank rates.

It underpins the terms of $US500 trillion ($A540.69 trillion) of contracts from mortgages to the cost of corporate lending.

The scandal erupted two years ago when Barclays was fined STG290 million ($A528.23 million) by British and US regulators for attempted manipulation of Libor and Euribor interbank rates between 2005 and 2009. Euribor is the eurozone equivalent of Libor.

Royal Bank of Scotland, Swiss lender UBS, Rabobank and broker Icap have also received heavy fines over the scandal.

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Google, Jay Z among 2014 Webby winners

Google, Jay Z and crowdfunding site Kickstarter are among the winners of this year’s Webby Awards, a celebration of internet achievement that got its start nearly two decades ago.

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The awards are presented by the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, a group of about 1,000 web experts and internet professionals. Judges included Tumblr founder David Karp and “House of Cards” actor Kevin Spacey.

Each Webby category is split in two: There’s an award from the academy and a “people’s voice” award for which anyone can cast an online vote. Winners in the latter category include Beyonce, Tumblr, the NASA website and satirical news site The Onion (which was also the academy’s pick in the humour category).

The website “Reasons My Son Is Crying” received both the Webby and the people’s voice award in the personal blog or website category. The site features photos of bawling children captioned with the reasons they are upset, which range from “I wouldn’t let him eat dog food” to “we told him that his dinosaur is blue”.

Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig won a lifetime achievement award. Lessig co-founded Creative Commons, which provides a way for people to licence their online work for public use.

The Jamaican Bobsleigh Team won Athlete of the Year honours for using crowdfunding to finance its trip to the Sochi Olympics. The team raised $US129,687 ($A140,240) from the crowdfunding site Crowdtilt and also received unsolicited donations from the supporters of Dogecoin, the cryptocurrency inspired by a silly internet meme.

The awards will be handed out on May 19 in New York in a ceremony famous for restricting winners to five-word acceptance speeches. Actor and comedian Patton Oswalt will host.

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Facing the hard questions on university funding

By Glyn Davis, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Melbourne 

A public university owes a wide debt to society.

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Among our obligations is to ensure the wisest use of public funding for education. So the subject of Commonwealth university policy demands attention. Inevitably the issue is more than fees.

Yet the question of fees is very important. A petition from the University of Melbourne Student Union, signed by hundreds of students in recent weeks, puts the issue frankly.

Vice-Chancellors should be standing with the student body to demand greater public funding. The report you submitted to the federal government on university fees pushed policies that were detrimental to the student body, in particular students from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Everyone on campus, staff and student alike, has a history with the question of who pays for tertiary education. For me, this began in 1978 as one first-year arts student among many, marching in protest against cuts to higher education imposed by the Fraser government. We could not know that funding per student had already peaked, and would fall steadily for the next three decades despite all the marches, demonstrations, campaigns and political lobbying ahead.

Now Malcolm Fraser is protesting against cuts to higher education expenditure. As the former prime minister told graduates at Macquarie University recently, “education is the best and most important investment that this country can make”.

Fraser noted the long, slow decline in public funding per student. Those who lead universities make the same point often. During my term as Chair of Universities Australia, vice-vhancellors pressed the case for more public investment through print, electronic and social media. You may recall the television advertisements, which were filmed next to the Old Quad at the University of Melbourne.

The campaign drew welcome support from the sector, but ominous silence from politicians. Before the year was out, Labor education minister Craig Emerson announced funding reductions amounting to $3.2 billion for university and student support over the next four years. Present Liberal minister Christopher Pyne later introduced legislation to enact the cuts, confirming an unhappy bipartisanship on public funding for universities.

How do politicians defend this record? They cite a different measure of investment: access to the higher education system. Funding per student may have fallen, they agree, but expansion of entry has been more important.

Once, a handful of students found places on campus; in 1970 around 3% of the adult population held a bachelor degree. Now, nearly 40% of young adult Australians possess a bachelor qualification. This growth in enrolments, they suggest, has required huge additional public investment, and a necessary trade between quality and quantity.

There is also a tougher message politicians pass on only in private, using the language of electoral calculus – and that message is simple: however passionately those in higher education feel about the sector, the issue does not rate in polling about public concerns. Australians worry about the health system and school education, about jobs, transport and the cost of living. They are not inclined to pay more taxes.

Put bluntly, the electorate believes university students do well after graduation, earning more than most. The case for investing more in higher education makes compelling sense to students and staff but rarely moves the wider community.

This perception follows a simple calculation. The average Australian graduate has less than $20,000 in higher education loan debt, which is paid back through the taxation system in around eight years. On one recent estimate, graduates earn an additional $1.2 million during their working lifetime. There are few other investments with such sustained returns.

The UMSU petition argues that higher fees are detrimental to students, in particular those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Price increases are always unpopular and debt is never welcome.

I am less sure higher fees affect equity. With HECS, students face no entry costs to study and make no repayments if their income does not reach the tax threshold. As the government demonstrated in 2005, lifting the cost of higher education does not alter participation, even among the disadvantaged.

Nonetheless, there are vital social returns from public investment in higher education. Most taxpayers may not attend university but they profit from the skills of graduates – those nurses, teachers, engineers and art historians who make this a better community. Our society benefits too from research done at universities, and from the large flow of international students who choose Australian universities as their destination, and so enrich our culture and our economy.

The UMSU petition calls for students and vice-chancellors to stand side by side in demanding greater public funding. Agreed, but what happens when governments decline that call? When we’ve marched in the streets, run advertising campaigns, made public statements to no avail, what then?

Do public universities walk away from all other options because students will not like the alternatives? The quality of an institution depends on money to hire brilliant academics, build teaching laboratories, support a well-stocked library, ensure the amenities to support study and student life, and support scholarships to help those with financial challenges. As a non-profit public enterprise, this is how the University of Melbourne spends income earned from student fees. As we face the possibility of yet further cuts in public funding, the issue of student contribution is hard to avoid.

The UMSU petition opposes not just higher fees but other policy changes:

Reverse your position on fee increases and deregulation and, in future, consider students’ welfare before taking a position on fees.

Yet the scale of student contribution is part of a bigger policy picture. The University of Melbourne has indeed argued for deregulation, citing examples where duplicated reporting regimes, inflexible rules and unnecessary government impositions burn up money better spent on teaching and research.

The current national funding system contains significant internal unfairness. Tertiary students do not make an equal contribution to their education. For studies in dentistry, medicine or veterinary science, the taxpayer covers around two-thirds of the course cost. But for law, accounting, commerce, economics or administration, the taxpayer provides around a fifth of the cost. The situation is more challenging for international students who pay significantly more on average for the same course than their domestic counterparts.

How does this square with concern for student welfare? If we are serious about equitable contributions by students, the status quo should be unacceptable.

Moreover, the current funding system privileges some areas of study, but makes others financially difficult for universities. For example, the cost of offering a place in the Masters of Teaching is around $5,000 a year more than the total public subsidy and the maximum charge allowed by the Commonwealth. This gap reflects the expense of delivering within working schools, using master teachers and a clinical model – the essential features of the program, and the basis of the internationally acclaimed success of the Melbourne Graduate School of Education.

It is only possible to offer such financially unviable programs by taking money from other courses – an inequity built into the system. Equally unfair is the cross-subsidy from international students to locals; one student’s benefit comes at the cost of another.

So, when the University of Melbourne argues for deregulation, it addresses more than student fees. It seeks a system in which fees are linked to the courses a student chooses to study, and where the burden of charges is shared more equitably.

As the 2011 Base Funding Review report noted, a consistent rate of student contribution would see some course costs rise and others fall. As at present, there would be no up-front fees thanks to the Higher Education Contribution Scheme.

The Coalition government has signalled an intention to cut public spending. Assuming a further reduction to outlays for universities, the government may contemplate allowing institutions to raise fees to cover yet another fall in public spending per student. The UMSU position, as expressed in the petition, suggests the University of Melbourne should not take up this flexibility should it be presented. This will win the sympathy of many in the short term, but will have serious implications for future generations.

The dilemma for the university is distressing but straightforward: do we accept a fall in quality as the public subsidy diminishes yet again, or seek flexibility to match the student contribution to the real cost of delivering tertiary education and address inadequacies in the current system? This question is bigger than fee levels, since it goes to a status quo already riddled with inequitable distribution of available public funding.

Students and staff alike hold dear the importance of universities to the nation, and the overriding importance of adequate public funding. Those running our universities feel likewise the responsibility of ensuring the highest-quality university possible.

It is not in students’ interests to reduce the quality of their education to avoid unpopular fee rises. This is a choice no one welcomes, but a question we cannot avoid.

The University of Melbourne is a public-spirited university committed to excellence in research, teaching and learning and engagement. In the best of all possible worlds, that mission would be proudly and unstintingly supported by the nation. Our reality, alas, makes for harder choices.

Glyn Davis does not work for, consult to, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has no relevant affiliations.

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Can we erase unhappy memories?

We all have things we’d like to forget – being the victim of a crime, a bad relationship, an embarrassing faux pas.

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What if we could erase those bad memories? Or at least take the edge off them?

Over the last 10 or 15 years, researchers have got a better understanding of how memories are formed and recalled.

Dr Susannah Tye, an assistant professor in the departments of psychiatry and psychology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, says that bad memories affect people on two levels.

There’s the recollection of the traumatic event, as well as a physical aspect – a person’s heart may race or they may get depressed or withdrawn – that can be debilitating.

“These memories, when they’re traumatic, they’ve been stored effectively because they’re very important,” she says.

Science hasn’t found a delete button you can hit to eliminate certain memories, though researchers are looking. In the meantime, Tye suggests, “a psychologist or psychiatrist with expertise in trauma can help facilitate what the individual can do”.

The very process behind the recollection of an event is still not fully understood, though we’re discovering some surprising things.

“We don’t remember everything, only bits and pieces,” says Jason Chan, an assistant professor of psychology at Iowa State University.

“We take these pieces (when we recall a memory) and reconstruct a story that makes sense to us. But it might not be correct.”

Those memories can also be altered. Writing on the Scientific American Blog Network earlier this year, neuroscientist R Douglas Fields explained that when a specific memory is recalled, it is vulnerable to being altered or even extinguished for a certain period of time.

Chan is doing research along those lines. His team’s studies, published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that if a memory is reactivated by being recalled – a process called reconsolidation – it becomes susceptible to being changed.

“We found you can make it harder for people to remember a previous event if they recall it, and right after that you give them information that’s different from the original memory,” he says. “(It) makes it more difficult.”

As an example, he suggested a conversation in which he talks about a panda.

“A couple days later, I ask, ‘What was the animal we talked about?’ You say, ‘A panda bear.’ I say, ‘Actually it was a grizzly bear.’

“A couple of days later I ask again, and it will be more difficult for you to remember the panda bear. The grizzly bear has updated the memory.”

There are other methods of altering memories. Certain drugs, protein inhibitors, have been shown to make memories more malleable. Electric shocks to the brain can also erase certain memories, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers have found a gene that can help with memory extinction. Even alcohol can do the job. Chan says that alcohol affects the memory formation mechanism. Research continues in all these areas.

Another possible way to edit memories doesn’t involve professional assistance, drugs or medical intervention.

Mike Byster is the author of “The Power of Forgetting: Six Essential Skills to Clear Out Brain Clutter and Become the Sharpest, Smartest You” (Harmony Books). Part of his theory involves forgetting the unnecessary and retaining what’s needed. He explains that in the book. But he also suggests ways to have some control over major memories.

His mother, he says, suffered a brain injury and for the last two years of her life was a different person. Because he didn’t want to remember her that way, he focused instead on happy times.

“I took two or three happy memories, and made myself remember them vividly, with as much detail as I could recall,” he says.

“I tell people to do this, make the memories as vivid as possible. Now and then my mum pops into my head, and it’s the fun things, the good memories, that are so vivid.”

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Android surging in global tablet market

The Google Android platform extended its dominance over Apple in the tablet market in early 2014, a research firm says.

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Strategy Analytics said on Monday Android grabbed 65.8 per cent of global tablet sales in the first quarter, up from 53 per cent a year ago.

Apple meanwhile saw iPad sales slump and its market share tumbled to 28.4 per cent from 40.3 per cent a year earlier, the survey showed.

Global tablet sales in the quarter were up 19 per cent at 57.6 million units, the market research firm said.

“Android continues to make steady progress and now commands two-thirds of the tablet market share,” said Peter King, analyst at Strategy Analytics.

While Apple ignited the tablet market with its first iPads, it has now lost its dominance to Android in the same manner as the iPhone has seen its share eroded in the smartphone market.

The report said iPad sales were down 16 per cent from the same period a year ago.

“We believe that the disappointing performance in the early part of the calendar year is because Apple has changed its product release cycle to the holiday timeframe,” King said.

He added that Apple “will likely lose share over the next several months to refreshed Android products, but we believe Apple will win back meaningful high-end market share during the final months of the calendar year”.

Android sales totalled some 38 million in the period to Apple’s 25.6 million, the report said.

The survey also found a steady market share for tablets using Microsoft Windows.

Windows tablet sales rose to 3.4 million from 2.8 million a year earlier, keeping a steady market share of 5.8 per cent, according to Strategy Analytics.

“There may be an uptick in Windows following Microsoft’s decision to offer Windows for free for sub nine-inch devices,” the report noted.

“We may see a new batch of eight-inch Windows-based tablets with reduced prices; they will still not be as inexpensive as Android, but it will enable them to be more competitive and appealing to a wider audience.”

But the researchers said a dearth of apps continues to be a problem for Microsoft, “with seemingly little incentive for developers to work on the platform”.

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Juve overcome early scare to move closer to title

Andrea Pirlo then provided a sublime pass for Claudio Marchisio to put the visitors in front on 58 minutes and Fernando Llorente backheeled the third in the 76th.

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The result left Juventus on 93 points from 35 games, eight ahead of AS Roma with three matches each to play.

Juventus will wrap up the title if they beat Atalanta at home on May 5 or if Roma fail to beat bottom club Catania on Sunday.

Sassuolo are joint 17th with Bologna on 28 points. The bottom three in the 20-team table go down.

“It was a really a difficult game because of the weather, the pitch and Sassuolo who put us under a lot of pressure,” Marchisio told Sky Sport Italia.

“This match reflected our season, as we got through with character and determination. We’re nearly there.”

With a Europa League semi-final second leg against Benfica looming on Thursday, Juventus coach Antonio Conte left Stephan Lichtsteiner and Leonardo Bonucci out of the starting lineup and his side were quickly on the ropes. Sassuolo, making their top flight debut this season, have already made their mark with a 4-3 win over AC Milan which caused their opponents to sack coach Massimiliano Allegri and replace him with Clarence Seedorf. In pouring rain, Sassuolo forward Nicolas Sansone sounded an early warning with a shot across goal before Zaza opened the scoring. His angled shot deflected off Angelo Ogbonna and slipped between Gianluigi Buffon and the near post. The hosts were threatening a second until Juventus took a quick free kick and Tevez rifled home a low, deflected shot.

It would have been the Argentine’s 19th goal of the season but Serie A’s official website gave it as an own goal by Sassuolo defender Longhi. With pools of water starting to appear on the pitch early in the second half, Sansone played a neat-one two with Zaza and fired over from the edge of the area as Sassuolo threatened again. Instead, Juventus went ahead when a clearance out of the Sassuolo defence went straight to playmaker Pirlo, who lobbed a first-time pass over the defence for Marchisio to fire past Gianluca Pegolo. Juventus wrapped the game up when substitute Lichtsteiner’s low cross from the right was cheekily back-heeled into the net by Spaniard Llorente.

(Reporting By Brian Homewood, editing by Alan Baldwin)

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NRL community in shock after death of Ryan Tandy

News of Tandy’s death has shocked former teammates and opponents with tributes posted on social media for the disgraced player, who was banned from the NRL for match-fixing.

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Former Storm and Bulldogs teammate Steve Turner says he’s “numb” at the death of the “likeable” character.

Police say the death is not being treated as suspicious.

On Monday at about 2pm, the former forward was found dead from a drug overdose at his parents’ home at Saratoga on the NSW Central Coast.

News of the match-fixer’s death shocked former teammates and opponents with tributes posted on social media for the NRL journeyman.

“I am just numb. Just numb,” former Storm and Bulldogs teammate Steve Turner told AAP.

“He was just such a likeable character, the life of the party. A bit of a joker and just someone we all liked to have around.

“We played in the 2009 premiership team and then when they asked about him coming up to the `Dogs, I was all for it.

 

“It is just sad that he might be remembered for all the wrong reasons.”

Tandy, who had a gambling problem, left Melbourne for the Bulldogs during the 2010 season only months after winning the NRL premiership which was later stripped from the Storm for salary cap breaches.

His life started to spiral out of control not long afterwards.

Early in a match between the Bulldogs and North Queensland in August 2010, he dropped the ball and then deliberately gave away a penalty in front of his team’s posts.

He was found to have placed bets on the Cowboys scoring the first points of the match with a penalty goal.

Tandy was banned for life from the NRL for match-fixing.

He returned to rugby league for French club Pia Donkeys in 2012 despite calls for his registration to be cancelled.

Earlier this year, he was again in the headlines for the wrong reasons.

 

Tandy was accused of being the “hired muscle” in the kidnapping of a man in January on the NSW Central Coast over a drug debt worth tens of thousands of dollars.

He had been due in court next month.

 

Turner said he had drifted apart from Tandy in the past few years.

“He had his issues away from the field over the past three or four years and they look like they have caught up with him. It is just sad,” Turner said.

 

“We talk about mental health issues in professional sport.

 

“I wonder if in rugby league we are doing enough to support our players.”

Tandy played 36 NRL matches for St George Illawarra, South Sydney, Wests Tigers, Melbourne and Canterbury from 2003 to 2010.

He also played for five clubs in England and represented Ireland at the 2008 World Cup.

Police said the death was not being treated as suspicious.

   

Readers seeking support and information about suicide prevention can contact Lifeline on 13 11 14 or Suicide Call Back Service on 1300 659 467.

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Olympic bronze medallist has dive phobia

British diver Tom Daley has admitted he is now so fearful of his twist dive he is undergoing “therapy” in a bid to cure himself of what he believes is a “phobia”.

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The teenager took part in last weekend’s 10-metre platform event at the London Aquatic Centre, his first competitive appearance at the venue since winning a bronze medal at the 2012 Olympic Games.

However, this time around the 19-year-old Daley finished out of the podium places in fifth position, with the twist dive – which he had to repeat during the Olympics after being distracted by a camera flash – which let him down again.

Since the Games, Daley has not landed the dive to his satisfaction and he said: “The scale of this issue is massive. I’m trying every single thing possible to try and get it back to normal. I’m going under different types of therapy.

“It is almost trauma therapy – to get myself to process the things that have gone wrong on it to get it to a stage where I can forget about it and feel positive about it.

“I am literally terrified of it. I suppose you could call it a phobia and I don’t know what my heart rate is when I go up there and do it but it’s definitely above 180, something ridiculous, because it is so terrifying.”

Daley will miss the next leg of the World Series in Moscow in a bid to get himself prepared fully for the defence of his Commonwealth Games title in Glasgow in July.

Since his Olympic success, Daley has become arguably even more well-known in his native Britain for his work as a television personality and for publicly declaring his homosexuality.

Pete Waterfield, who competed alongside Daley in the synchronised event at London 2012, said his former dive partner needed to spend more time in the pool and less in the television studio.

“I know Tom’s been a busy boy with his shows, but I think that’s now starting to show through,” the 33-year-old Waterfield, who retired from diving in 2013, told the BBC.

“He needs to knuckle down with his training and his diving if he’s to achieve what he’s capable of achieving.”

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Deco tips Scolari’s Brazil for World Cup glory

Born in Sao Paulo, Deco moved to Portugal at the age of 19 in 1997 and made his name at Porto, winning the UEFA Cup and then the Champions League under Jose Mourinho.

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By that time he had qualified for Portuguese citizenship and won the first of his 75 caps for the national team.

He played for four years at Barcelona, winning the Champions League again, and then had two seasons at Chelsea before returning to Brazil to finish his career with Fluminense, retiring last August.

Assessing the World Cup contenders in an interview with Reuters, he said: “Although the attack is not exceptional, Brazil have a very strong defence and good midfield. They have home advantage and they are favourites because of that.

“Of course the pressure on them is high. They have the precedent of 1950 when they lost to Uruguay but that is a long time ago, a different moment.”

His admiration for Scolari is based on playing for him for Portugal between 2003 and 2008, including two European Championships and the 2006 World Cup, where they reached the semi-finals.

The current Brazil coach was less successful at Chelsea, where he was sacked after little more than six months. But Deco, his first signing there, said: “Scolari is the best coach to have. He knows all about pressure of being coach of Brazil. He knows the mentality of his players, and he won the World Cup in 2002 for Brazil when no-one expected it.”

He believes any fears that European teams have about adapting to the heat and humidity will not apply in many of the venues, but that several other South American teams will do well.

“Argentina are always strong. Uruguay have Luis Suarez, who has been playing very well for Liverpool and Chile are a team who play good football.”

As for his adopted country, who qualified thanks to Cristiano Ronaldo scoring all four goals in the playoff matches against Sweden, Deco said: “Portugal has a chance but they have a tough group, with Germany, Ghana and USA.

“If they come through the first stage anything can happen after that. In the second leg against Sweden Ronaldo had a fantastic game and they need to be able to support him.”

Deco, who as the MasterCard Player Mascot Manager will help give 22 kids a Priceless Experience at the UEFA Champions League final, has been following the competition with keen interest.

He is disappointed that Barcelona went out to Atletico Madrid but convinced that Chelsea can prevent an all-Madrid final.

“Chelsea are favourites to go through after the 0-0 away to Atletico. They know how to win and I hope they do it. It would be good to see Mourinho in the final in Lisbon.

“The other tie is a tough one. Bayern has a good squad but Madrid won the first leg 1-0 and they can play counter-attack as they like to in the second match and score an away goal.”

(editing by Justin Palmer)

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Video shows South Korea ferry captain escape

South Korea’s coastguard has released a video showing the trouserless captain of a sinking ferry scrambling to safety as hundreds remained trapped inside.

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The 10-minute video – taken by rescue officials and aired on Monday the YTN news channel – shows 69-year-old captain Lee Joon-seok, wearing a jumper and underpants, hastily escaping from the bridge of the tilting ship before it sank on April 16.

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All 15 of the surviving crew responsible for sailing the huge ferry are in custody, facing charges including negligence and abandoning passengers.

Victims’ families have bitterly criticised the official response to the disaster, saying delays in accessing the submerged ship may have robbed any survivors of their last chance to make it out alive.

The video attracted caustic online comment.

“Look at the captain running out of the ship without his pants on. How pathetic. Can’t believe he didn’t think about all the children trapped there while he rushed so quickly to save his own life,” said one user.

Prosecutors on Monday carried out a series of raids, including on a coastguard office, as part of their widening investigation into the disaster that left 300 dead or missing.

Divers trying to search the wreck of the upturned Sewol, which capsized with 476 people on board, were frustrated for a third straight day by atrocious weather and dangerous conditions.

Despite more than 60 hours of operations since Friday by divers trying to penetrate the flooded interior, only two more bodies have been recovered and 113 are still unaccounted for.

The confirmed death toll from one of the country’s worst ever maritime disasters stood on Monday at 189. Most of the missing and dead were high school students.

Strong currents have also worsened fears bodies could drift free and be scattered.

Nets have been thrown up in seas around the ferry but no finds have yet been reported.

Park Seung-Gi, a spokesman for the government’s Joint Task Force co-ordinating actions, vowed on Monday to redouble efforts to prevent bodies getting lost at sea.

Special teams have been set up to search underwater around the sunken vessel, as well on the sea surface, nearby islands and shores, he said.

Another official said China and Japan would be asked to contact South Korea if they find any unidentified bodies on their shores.

In deeply Confucian South Korea, the proper burial of bodies – often in the deceased person’s home town – is considered a way to show respect for the dead and allow their soul to rest in peace.

South Korea remains in a state of national mourning, as furious relatives and the public at large cast around for someone to blame for one of the country’s worst maritime accidents.

The video shows the open decks of the ship nearly empty, as crew repeatedly instruct passengers to stay in their cabins until it becomes impossible for them to evacuate because the ship is tilting too much.

The delay in the crucial final hours – when most crew members fled the ferry – sparked outrage that many lives could have been saved if passengers had received timely instructions.

Prime Minister Chung Hong-Won tendered his resignation on Sunday, admitting he had not been up to the task of overseeing the official response. He was told by President Park Geun-Hye to stay in his post until the recovery has finished.

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